Yes, you can get the end result you're after, but it's a bit of an indirect method to achieve it.
Starting with your master list, build your external lookup to the table that lists the people who have submitted forms. Your list of submitted names needs to have at least one other column, so that you can import a value when you find a match. Even a copy of the names will work just fine with a different field name. Create a field to match the key field, say SubmittedName.
Then if Joe Smith submitted a form, you'll see his name for both the master list and under SubmittedName.
Now build a new calculated Character field to narrow down the ones that haven't yet submitted:
Alternatively you could create a Not Submitted filter using: