In addition to Chris's reply if running the install again (after a machine reboot perhaps?) does not deliver a solution you may need to consider whether there is some form of system protection deployed that is preventing a complete install of sub-component programs like specific .NET routines to offer one example.
Also anything related to the current status of Windows and any related Office applications on your machine compared to the one that works.
If, somehow, you have managed to get hold of Windows 10 Fall Creators Release then all bets are off! (Yes, I know that is extremely unlikely in your locked down corporate environment ...)
There should be a log file for the installation somewhere. It might offer some clues.